Tuesday, December 22, 2015

The Unwelcome Guests of the Holiday Season!

It has been two years.

And the pain still lingers in the recesses of my mind.

My dear friend and colleague of 22 years, High School mathematics teacher extraordinaire Mary Layco, passed away unexpectedly on December 26th, 2013. And the holiday reminds me of the loss. And, the love I had and have for her. Is it selfish, I wonder, to move on and to enjoy many of the more positive “Hallmark Moments” that can and should be part of this holiday season with friends and with family?

The holiday also represents a time for a vacation. A much needed break ahead. I know there are readers of this blog glad they made it to and through last Friday – on the fumes of what little work energy they had left. Ready for a mid –year break from the pressure cooker of a 2015-2016 school year.

I try not to dwell on it, but it is both the curse and the blessing of this time of the year. The Holiday season can be such a wonderful and enjoyable respite with family and friends. 2015 ends as 2016 begins in a blink of the eye. It is a season often filled with renewal and new hope.

And yet, it is also a season that can bring unwelcome “guests” into our homes and our lives.

Those guests include unreasonably high expectations of pleasing others, shifting or changing rituals and traditions, painful reminders of the recent loss of loved ones, grudges and grievances with family members or neighbors, pressure to hurry up and donate time or money before the year ends, gift giving decisions, unhealthy eating habits, and the potential for overspending, all have the potential to come to our doorstep over the next 2 weeks. These unfriendly guests can overwhelm us at the holiday if we are not careful. Sheesh, everything becomes so hyper focused.

And, the reality rarely outpaces the hype. Where and how exactly did the word “holiday” (as in vacation) get lost in the translation of expectations during this season?

So, what can we do? How do we make this 2015 end of year Holiday as enjoyable as possible? Well, as I said to a remarkable group of leaders from Wayne Co Michigan last week, you need to find some intentional Quadrant II low energy time over the next two weeks. Give yourself that gift this holiday. And do it every day.

Here are some suggestions:

Get outside, let it all go, and just go for a walk! Alone! Find a place to hide for 2 hours and read a book! Sleep! Go to a movie! Find grace and give it freely to others! Dance! Listen to your favorite itunes songs and belt them out if you dare! Find laughter in the simplest activities with your family! Don't expect perfection! Hold on to rituals, but accept they might be changing as your family grows and changes too! Use lots of exclamations points! Oh, did I mention sleep?

But back to my more spiritual connection to Mary Layco, which these days include too, my thoughts about best friend and colleague of 37 years, Jerry Cummins (Now residing in an Alzheimer’s center, and living at the most acute stage seven of the disease). How do I honor Mary’s life in my memory? Will I take the time to honor Jerry’s life and all that it has meant to me? Or will I be too busy and wrapped up in the emotional drag of those unwelcome guests this year? Important people cross our paths, and the holiday can bring a rough reminder of why we loved them so much, against the backdrop and pain of missing them too.

So, I have decided that this season, I will sit with their memories in my mind, in the quiet hours before dusk. And in those quiet moments, I will allow myself to pull them in to the recesses of my heart and my thoughts. I will quietly and intentionally embrace them, and embrace the pain and sadness of missing these welcomed guests of so many wonderful years, by finding the joy of who they are and were as fellow travelers in this crazy fast paced, mixed up and now instant gratification social media world we live in.

I will intentionally enjoy the warmth of what was once their deep friendship. I will celebrate them as I slow down and fiercely deny all of those unwanted holiday guests that can potentially rob me of being the kind of person you would want to be around this season. I will laugh because of the gift their lives once gave me.

I will laugh because of the gifts of the wacky family and friends that continue to love me for one reason or another. I will stand strong against those other "unwelcome guests” by giving myself some grace, so that I can be a better me for them this holiday season and just maybe into 2016 too.  

This season, be intentional about finding your place to get quiet. Every day. Think about whom you need to embrace? What memory gift of joy do you need to give yourself in the quiet moments of this season? I think it is the best gift you can give not just to yourself, but also to others, as those unwanted guests are left outside of your door this season.

Happy Holidays Everyone!

Sunday, December 6, 2015

Tis the Season - Seeking Clarity in the Classroom!

This past week, while working with my colleagues in Green Bay Wisconsin and with so many wonderful and hard-working teachers, I was asked an interesting question that took me a bit by surprise and caused me to pause for a brief minute.

“Dr. Kanold, you have had a big influence on our thinking and our practice, but who do you look to? Who have you learned from? Who has influenced your thinking?”

As I hesitated to respond, my first teaching job (1973 -1979) flooded back into my memory. I was the only math teacher at a small rural high school south of Rockford, Illinois. There were no colleagues or daily sources to influence the focus of my work. No Internet. No social media. No Cell phones. Ha! In some cases, no phones period!

I had no idea how to measure my effectiveness.

I was often panicked about whether I was making an impact as a teacher. The routine of teaching all day, going to practice (coaching) for 3 hours, starting a young family, and then getting ready for the next day had a sort of exhaustion to it. I was working really hard, but my lessons - my efforts to “explain” the topics I was teaching – often seemed to confuse my students. In short, I lacked clarity.

Was it me or was it them, I wondered.

Unbeknownst to me, there was a national “Teacher Effectiveness” movement sweeping our country during the 70’s (This later fed a “School Effectiveness” movement during the 1980’s). It was a decade that closely examined “Teacher Moves” that made a significant impact on student learning. (Connecting teacher actions to student learning was a novel idea at the time). What was revealed during the Teacher Effectiveness movement were lesson design elements, that quite frankly are very similar to what we teach today – more than 40 years later.

Aware of my own shortcomings I had gone back to school part time to take some night classes through the University of Illinois. My professor for my very first class was a man named Barak Rosenshine. Yes, THE Barak Rosenshine. I had no idea at the time who he was, or how he was helping to define the blueprint descriptors of highly effective teaching actions. What I did know was that he provided for me, a holy grail for my work. Above all my other early influences, Rosenshine was certainly the best and brightest I knew.

Who is/was he? Well, check out this news article, What Characterizes an EffectiveTeacher? An exclusive interview with Barak Rosenshine (2002). 

I know many of you have heard me speak or read my work more than once over the years, and you will notice all of the swords I have fallen on in understanding the best there is for effective teaching practice dates back to and has morphed from that Tuesday night class, a long long time ago.

By 1986 (my 13th year in teaching) Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) summarized their research and concluded that effective teachers:

Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning
Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals
Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations
Provide a high level of active practice for all students
Provide systematic feedback and corrections

By 2000, I reframed these ideas into what I termed as the most essential elements of teacher clarity. Followed by the 12 Essential Lesson Design Questions (EDQ’s) for highly effective teachers (2010). In this blog I address the issues of clarity from 2000, and in my next blog, I will go deeper into the 12 EDQ’s from 2010.  

Are there actual teacher moves that can enhance clarity of the lesson for students? The answer is a resounding yes!  Rooted deeply in the discoveries of Rosenshine and his colleagues in the late 70's and into the 80's.

Essential Teacher Moves That Impact Clarity

1. Frame the Lesson  - Lessons should not appear as if they drop out of the sky with no connection to what content was before or ahead. Teachers that ask, “What have we done so far, in this Unit? How does that impact what we need to learn today? What will we see over the rest of this week? What might you expect today’s lesson to be about?” promote clarity for their students at the beginning and end of a lesson by providing context. How will the lesson be connected to student prior knowledge? How will students be expected to connect the lesson to their prior knowledge?

2. State and Overstate the Standards  Excessively. During the lesson. Ask your students to constantly re-state the learning target (orally and in writing) for the lesson. Connect the standard of the day, to each task for the day, explaining the connection, and why you chose that task. Require students to state (in I can student friendly language) the actual standard for the lesson, as part of a student led summary at the end of the lesson.

3. Label, Label, Label! – Too much of what students “Hear” from their teacher is not also placed in writing – so they can “see” your words. Label everything you do. Name the examples, provide in writing the nuggets of wisdom that pour out of your mouth during the lesson. Why is the example, idea or project important? Why is it relevant and meaningful? Why did you think that way? Place the why in writing! How will your thinking be labeled for the students? How will the students know your thinking if they can't process oral communication as well as others? How will students be expected to label their work in their notebooks? This really supports your ESL students in class. 

4. Precision of Teacher Language – Ask a colleague to come to your class and do nothing but write down every word and direction that flows from your mouth during the lesson. Take a close look at vague words or phrases, such as “Okay”, “You kinda should do this”, or “It is sorta like this”, or  “You might want to think about” Are your directions clear? Do students actually do what you tell them to do? Also, part of this clarity issue, is the vocabulary – your modeling of precise use of the language, and the impact it has on student use of the vocabulary. During class, what do you hear your students saying to one another? Is it precise, or vague? Can they clearly state the learning target for example or articulate their reasoning out loud?

5. Small Step Instruction  – You should present new material in small steps, providing for student practice after each step of whole group instruction. Think of it as blended discourse during the student learning of the lesson. The teacher constantly moves back and forth between whole group and small group discourse as essential elements of the lesson unfold. Clear lessons do not overwhelm the students, and have this built in formative check for understanding that gives students time to process the meaning of the content for that days’ lesson.

Consider this from Rosenshine (1986 and again in 2002):  

            First, there's the notion of teaching new material in small steps so that the learning process isn't   overloaded by getting too much at once. We have found that the most effective teachers, those teachers whose classes made the highest yearly gain, provided this support by teaching new material in manageable amounts, modeling, guiding student practice, helping students when they made errors, and providing for sufficient practice and review.  

Today there is exhaustive research and modern day language about effective teaching as we approach 2016. And although I might not agree with everything Rosenshine had to say to me 40 years ago, in that Tuesday night class, I know from my own teaching experience, that these elements of clarity will improve your teaching, but more importantly improve the level of student learning in your class.

Wishing you the best in the clarity journey as you reflect and renew this holiday season!  

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Giving Thanks at Thanksgiving 2015!

It is coming! A week from next Thursday!
It is such an understated holiday
It is an unheralded day that refuses to be glamorized
It is a national holiday where stores are closed (or should be)

It is so healthy, so encouraging…
It is so quiet! No jingles to sing! No gifts to buy!
It is just – a day…to…be…thankful
To look around and within and say


Thanksgiving provides that bit of a break we desperately need
Thanksgiving provides a time of reflection
Sometimes a time of painful awareness
How fragile life can be.

Thanksgiving celebrates those we love
Their spirit in our life
When we most need to hear it
Their grace and their passion
Their direction provided, to us
Their humility as a demonstration of strength, for us

This 2015 Thanksgiving
Connects me to 35 years of a friendship
Of personal and professional paths beaten and forged together
Of love and respect
Of reaching out and reaching within
With a joyful heart
Even though there is sadness
Too much sometimes

For what else is there to do?
How else should we really live?
Other than from a place of joy
Other than with a grateful heart
Even in times of grit and pain
Even in times of fears and tears
For there is also warmth and love

And so
This Thanksgiving
This Thanksgiving
I will not let my friends’ Stage 4 Cancer win
I will not let it rob joy from my heart
Or the hearts of all of those that love his gifted soul
His authentic wonderment for them
This Thanksgiving
I will celebrate the joy Rick DuFour brings to this life!   

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

What's Your PLC Adversity Plan for 2015-2016?

The annual Solution Tree PLC Summit in late February was beyond awesome! If you were one of the 2100 school educators in attendance, there was a palpable energy and hopefulness in the conference over the three days. It was an honor to be a part of such a high-energy positive event with great colleagues and presenters.

And then I failed. Like anyone who takes a stage and teaches students and adults, from time to time we may not be at our very best in responding to a question, or presenting our thoughts in a helpful and hopeful way.

For me, it occurred during my response to a question during the day-2 panel session.

How do we respond to a colleague who just refuses to collaborate? Refuses to participate in the teams’ activities? Resists the use of high quality common assessments, the review of data from those assessments, reflect together on how to score assessments, and in general, does not want to discuss instruction elements with the team and at times is confrontational when attending the team?

That was the question.

And my response was pretty weak, and a bit short with the audience. This is atypical for me, so I was trying to figure out how I could have responded in a more helpful way, and of course it came to me, about 35 minutes later, and by then I was the only person left in the ballroom! 

So, as part of a mea culpa, here is my improved response!

First, look at your teams’ conversations:

Confronting shortcomings and conflicts within the team requires a willingness to have tough conversations with certain people on the team. Tony Schwartz (2010) provides insight into the relational aspect of conflict:

Teachers and leaders who avoid conflict often cause more harm than those who are more direct. The key is to balance honesty with appreciation, always keeping in mind the value of the other person, even when being critical of a particular behavior. (p. 289)

JohnKotter and Lorne Whitehead (2010) describe a framework for identifying three primary forms of verbal attacks often used by team members that can undermine the distribution and discussion of good ideas:

1.     We don’t need your idea, because the “problem” it solves doesn’t exist.
2.     Okay, the problem exists, but your solution isn’t a good one.
3.     Okay, a problem exists, and your solution is a good one, but it will never work here!

These “implicit attitudes of the attacker” (Kotter & Whitehead, 2010, p. 106) highlight typical communication attacks team members may unwittingly use. These responses assume that each idea is in competition with another, but in fact competing ideas can all be very good ideas. 

The question for the team to focus on isn’t why any of the ideas won’t work. The question to answer is which of these ideas can serve the greater good—or is there a way to combine our ideas to better serve the greater good?

Notice how two of Kotter and Whitehead’s categories use the word but. This is one of the reasons we outlawed that word as part of our verbal conversations and replaced it with the word and. We wanted our PLC conversations to sound more like this: “Okay, that problem does exist, and how can we use your solution to also address the concern of [fill in the blank]?”

In a PLC culture, collaborative teams will work hard to take divergent thoughts from each member of the team, and combine them to make new and more meaningful ideas.

Second, embrace resistors to the vital PLC culture collaborative team behaviors

Identify the Skeptics, Cynics and Opposers (terms I learned about from John Ortberg) to the full implementation of the teams’ efforts! And then respond to them, based on why they are resisting.


1. The Skeptic: Skeptics fear disappointing someone else or themselves. So they choose not to try. These are mostly the adults working from a fixed mindset for their abilities. The best remedy is to help them gain the confidence during the team time they need, to shift toward the vital behavior. How can you best help and support the current skeptics on your team?

2. The Cynic: Cynics fear accepting responsibility and facing accountability to the vital behavior. There will be no one else to blame. The best remedy for the cynic is to have a strong PLC team. The social motivation of the team is the best way to influence the cynic. How can you best help and support the current cynics on your team, to diminish their fear?

3. The Opposer: Opposers fear a changed power structure and removal of the status quo. They fear change itself and anything that disrupts the way they see the world. The best remedy for the opposer is to make the PLC culture become the status quo. How can you best “lean into” and support current opposers?
One way to help opposers is to have a clear and established Conflict Resolution plan as outlined next.
Third, care enough to confront

Every year there will be team conflict at some level. So, why not have a team adversity plan that kicks into action once conflict arose? We call this our “Care Enough to Confront” plan.

The plan consists of seven guidelines team members could follow because they cared enough to confront those not supporting the work of the team. We practice using the plan as an effective way to deal with the team adversity that is most assuredly going to occur every year!

1.     Confront ASAP. When a relational breakdown occurs between two people on the team, address the issues immediately. Further delay and unresolved issues only complicate the team dynamics.

2.     Separate the team member from the wrong action. Most team conflict issues are about a team member’s action that undermines the work of the team: for example, failure to be on time, failure to complete an assigned portion of the work project on time, failure to contribute in a positive manner, failure to act on an agreed-upon project or lesson assessment. It is the team member’s actions that need to be addressed, not the quality of the person.

3.     Give the team member the benefit of the doubt. It is important not to assume you know why the person was late, failed to deliver the project, or didn’t meet the deadline. Allow the person an opportunity to explain his or her actions.

4.     Avoid absolute words. Avoid using such words as always and never (“You always let the team down,” “You never show up on time,” “You never contribute to our team”). These types of statements are rarely true and diminish the speaker’s credibility.

5.     Avoid sarcasm. Do not use phrases such as “I know you just think you are too good for us” or “Maybe if you would try just a bit harder you could get it right next time” or “Well, our team knows what you’ll be doing while we work on this—nothing!”

6.     Tell the team member how you feel about what was done wrong. It is very important to let the team member know how his or her actions made you and/or the team feel. How does the action impact others? Often, offenders to the team norms and values do not fully realize the emotional wake they leave behind because of their actions or inactions in relation to team values and commitments.

7.     Keep a short account. Every team encounters some adversity as members debate and argue about important practices and methods for the teaching and learning. Once the care enough to confront discussion is completed, everyone on the team must let it go, move on, and keep a short mental account of the issue. Team members who harbor long-term resentments will be toxic to the team’s growth.

As the 2014-2015 season enters April, and this school year winds down, you can use some of these reflection tools to focus how your team might better embrace adversity in 2015-2016, answer the call of improving student learning, and solving the real and every day problems you face – together.